Cavitation

The phenomenon of cavitation is given by a sudden drop in fluid pressure below the vapor pressure, this is due to sudden changes in flow velocity or a partial vacuum effect usually given by columns of large fluid such as pumps. In practical terms this pressure drop causes the formation of vapor bubbles, which travel through the fluid to that in another place, the pressure is restored causing a sudden gas condensate, generating an implosion, is given a strong impact, in adjacent areas as it creates the so-called hollow charge effect or Monroe, where all waves converge to the same location confining themselves, this creates very significant bites end up destroying the metal. It is also known that sometimes those are not such, as we all know the fluids are incompressible, but due to special conditions of change in velocity, the fluid is torn momentarily, creating a hole, which has no gas or takes very limited extent when the rate immediately after regularized, fluid molecules suddenly rush into the hole that was generated, causing a shock at the point of convergence, the same is directed to where there were no precipitating molecules , which is the wall nearest the surface. As is known elements, which suffer the greatest damage by this phenomenon are the propellers, pumps, fuel lines, hydroelectric generation turbines, rudders of ships, etc.. Although cavitation is a phenomenon commonly identified as necessary to avoid negative in its impact has basically two useful applications, cleaning by cavitation and ultrasound and called Supercavitating, which allows the movement of a body immersed in a fluid, a speeds exceeding 500 km / h even close to the speed of sound, is currently widely investigated for military purposes. It is not easy to avoid cavitation, and you can not control in many cases the liquid medium for these cases what is done is to modify the geometry of the elements and / or make a careful design of the equipment involved. When you can control the flow, such as fuel pipe lines or water cooling, you can resort to some alternatives, such as decreasing the flow rate, keeping the fluid clean as possible, reduce the temperature of the or place dampers that absorb the fluctuations in speed is usually detected by the noise which is similar causes snoring even pebbles moving it also generates vibration that is easily detectable especially since it can be seen in the graphs of the so-called camel humps , a sure sign of the phenomenon cavitatorio. Even slight cavitation, causes wear and that "clean" the surface of metal, oxide, which is a layer, exposing the protective metal, in that instant you create a galvanic battery, which increases the surface erosion because the metal is subject to the action of cavitation and corrosion of rapidly destroying.