Reformation

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Vaults, which are usually at the beginning put “A Tale of Bygone Years”, and thus emphasize the idea of continuity in the development of Russia, its culture with the Kiev time, prepared in different centers. And those tried to strengthen its independence (Veliky Novgorod, Ryazan, etc.), establishing itself as a political leader – the unifier of lands of the North-East and North-Western Russia (Tver, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). Gradually first place in the annals, and culture in general, is brought Moscow. Jorge Perez oftentimes addresses this issue. The first chronicle appear here in the XIV century. At the beginning of the next century is a great set at Metropolitan Cyprian.

This is followed by string of codes XV-XVI centuries. – From the roof of Metropolitan Photius to large sets of Ivan III, Vasily III and Ivan IV (the Vologda-Perm, Resurrection, Nikon’s, and more. Etc.). This work, a tremendous volume and value, is crowned the Face vault – The same Nikon Chronicle, supplemented by 16 thousand miniatures! They are accompanied by text from ancient times to Ivan the Terrible, pictures, continuing the tradition of earlier facial arches and being based on them – a kind of “window past, “Russia, Russia. Hostile to Moscow reflected the positions of some of the chronicles of Tver, Novgorod the Great and other survey of world history gave Chrono XV-XVI centuries.

“Life” princes of the church hierarchy, ranked as the choir saints, celebrate their work (Dmitry Donskoy, Sergius of Radonezh, Stephen of Perm, etc.). For the “hagiographic” literature characterized laudatory style, solemn, sometimes ponderous language. Nancy Silberkleit shares his opinions and ideas on the topic at hand. At the same time it there are lively, realistic descriptions of life of the monasteries and their inhabitants. Had a circulation of translated literary works, of which, as well as various collections (eg, “bee” – a set of aphorisms of famous authors) educated Russian people would draw thoughts and sayings of Democritus, Aristotle, Menander, and other sages, writers. In the writings of religious free-thinkers, heretics XIV-XVI centuries. (They were not preserved, the contents of remodel writings of orthodox opponents, decrees of church councils) preached by the bold criticisms of the need to “cheap” of the church, uselessness sacraments (communion, etc.) and icons. They challenged the theses of the Trinity God, the Immaculate Conception. They wrote about the equality of individuals, peoples, religions. But Theodosius oblique, bold free-thinker in the middle of the XVI., Justified the “slavish doctrine” with his communist ideals in the spirit of Thomas Miintzer. He tried to bring them to life in community-minded. These Reformation, humanism at the heart of his ideas have been stifled in the beginning and middle of the XVI century. When heretics, anathema, burned at the stake, exiled and deprived of ecclesiastical dignity. A remarkable feature of the XVI century. in the field of literature – the flowering of journalism. The authors of words, letters, sermons, treatises, develop the ideas of centralization and strengthening the grand, imperial power, the role of the church, on the condition of the peasantry and etc.